maladaptation climate change examples

New York: UNDP. While much of the Climate Change conversation centers on carbon–a subject that so far has failed to bring people together for a solution–there are actually many other examples of Climate Change that aren’t talked about as much. [Ex ante evaluation of the suitability of local initiatives for adaptation to climate change.] Based upon this, it affirms that the more guidelines an initiative addresses, the lower will be the risk of maladaptation. (2001). This, is thus destined to inform the formulation of adaptation initiatives prior to their implementation (. This paper however affirms the opposite, arguing that adaptation does not rely only on innovative initiatives, but also on “doing well what we currently do badly”, Although the issue of maladaptation is of growing concern, surprisingly few frameworks exist that help better understand and identify the risks and forms of maladaptation. species with a shorter rotation time in forestry. URL: http://journals.openedition.org/sapiens/1680, Geographer, research fellow at IDDRI (Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations, Sciences Po-Paris), email: alexandre.magnan@iddri.org, OpenEdition Journals member – Published with Lodel – Administration only, You will be redirected to OpenEdition Search, Avoiding maladaptation to climate change: towards guiding principles. Figure 1. In: Palutikof, J.P. et al. (…) There are also conflicts between adaptation options, [and] adaptation also interact with mitigation policies” (pp.245-6). This inevitably leads to an increase in uncertainty, especially regarding the impacts to expect on ecosystems and societies. Leary, D.J. Considering this, and for practical reasons, we artificially distinguish between environmental, sociocultural and economic maladaptations, in order to allow the identification of specific guidelines. e.g. improving risk management systems). 5 Except the fourth principle of the Precautionary framework. Smithers and Smit (1997) and Schipper (2009) also mention the term maladaptation in their work. Section 4 draws general conclusions regarding the overarching benefit of this work and suggests directions for future research. In: Field C.B. Hallegatte gives the example of limiting leakage in a water distribution network. Biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation: a way out of the deadlock? Successful Adaptation to Climate Change: Linking Science and Policy in a Rapidly Changing World, pp.37-48. Adaptation needs and options. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. S.A.P.I.EN.S 5(1), URL: http://sapiens.revues.org/1452. URL: http://www.preventionweb.net/files/7995_APF.pdf. Again, however, it is not always possible to avoid such displacement of pressures, which means that it is crucial to take this constraint into account and engage in parallel compensation mechanisms (e.g. Attendees (in alphabeti, This suggests both that there is a scholarship of maladaptation, and that the concept is making its way into the mainstream, but it does not imply that there is clarity on what it means. Human adaptation to climate variability and change. Newcomers generally know nothing about risk in the destination area, which leads them to develop bad practices such as the building of no-storey houses in low-elevated areas (e.g. 2910—Support the relative diversification of economic and/or subsistence activities. storms, floods) and gradual changes (e.g. (2005). We also consider a broad range of adaptation implementation forms (policies, plans, projects), using the generic term “adaptation initiatives”6. Global Environmental Change—Human and Policy Dimensions 23(6): 1476-1487. The aim is to keep as low as possible the cost of being wrong about future climate change” (p.244). Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M.M.B. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. In doing so, it indirectly highlights a key message of this paper: a prerequisite for any adaptation process is “first, do no harm”. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 45(1): 371-377. Indicators of vulnerability and adaptive capacity: towards a clarification of the science-policy interface. Ostrom, E. (2009). Table 1. A classical counterexample is the development of a coastal groyne that helps limit erosion in situ by capturing sand, but that disturbs natural movements of sand along the coast (e.g. A key rationale for such a position is that future risks are deeply rooted in current ones (Cardona et al., 2012; Wong et al., 2014) – such as the ones induced by over-urbanisation in low-lying coastal areas or the loss in risk memory, for example – so that addressing current drivers of risk/vulnerability also contributes to reducing future risks/vulnerability. 13These two frameworks are definitely helpful in moving from the concept of maladaptation to more practice-oriented guidelines. Canziani, N.A. Atoll island vulnerability to flooding and inundation revealed by historical reconstruction: Fongafale Islet, Funafuti Atoll, Tuvalu. (2013). Avoid degradation that causes negative effects in situ. la pertinence de projets locaux d’adaptation au changement climatique. Stocker, W.D. 257—Consider and develop local skills and knowledge related to climate-related hazards and the environment, in order to support the involvement of members of the community in and/or around the initiative taken in the name of adaptation to climate change. ), Adaptation Policy Frameworks for Climate Change: Developing Strategies, Policies and Measures. In sum, adaptation and maladaptation must be seen as a continuum, where the outcomes range from an ideal transformation toward a climate-resilient pathway on the one side, to irreversibly higher vulnerability on the other ().While we have numerous examples of maladaptation around the world, it continues to happen, and the shift between adaptation and maladaptation can be subtle and rapid. “Approaches may be maladaptive if their economic, social or environmental costs are high relative to alternatives” (p.212). on “robust” and “no regret” options – Lempert & Schlesinger, 2000; Lempert & Collins, 2007; Hallegatte, 2009; Heltberg et al., 2009). Losada, J.-P. Gattuso, J. Hinkel, et al. (Eds.) Such an ex ante approach, however, supposes to get a clearer understanding of what maladaptation is. Ebi et al., 2004; de França Doria et al., 2009; Berrang-Ford, 2011; Ford et al., 2013) and with the identification of concrete adaptation options (e.g. “Strategies that reduce vulnerability at null or low costs (…). A collective paper is in preparation that is focused on this definition. Table A-18: Examples of general climate change trends and their effect on interdependencies..... 61 Table A-19: Examples of stakeholder roles in climate change adaptation and event response ... Table E-2: Characteristics of maladaptation and possible impacts of major water infrastructure Second, we capitalize on our own ten-year experience of research in low-lying coastal areas in Kiribati and Bangladesh (CapAdapt project8), in Reunion Island (VulneraRe project9) and in the Maldives and Mauritius islands (Magnan, 2005; Gemenne & Magnan, 2010; Magnan, 2012). Cultural, social and political dimensions are thus also concerned. New research usually leads to the better understanding – sometimes the discovery – of feedbacks between various parameters (e.g. Hallegatte, S. (2009). It draws conclusions regarding the limitations of these approaches to addressing maladaptation in coastal areas – the scope of this paper – and the need for a more comprehensive analytical grid. Barnett, J. Based on the assumption that avoiding maladaptation to climate change is a first key concrete step towards adaptation in the broader sense, this paper proposes a framework for avoiding maladaptation (called the, This approach carries very positive news for decision-makers and practitioners in charge of implementing adaptation on the ground. Groves, S.W. (2011). Addressing the risk of maladaptation to climate change. An example of such degradation is the destruction of sand dunes that results from building a resort close to the water, which subsequently increases the new building’s exposure to storm surges. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Leary, D.J. So for instance, in an urban setting, the need for urban development might lead to a city or a town deciding to open up a new suburb in a certain area and have urban development in that area. The six principles of the Precautionary framework. This view notably fits with that of Barnett and O’Neill. 31Finally, the above eleven guidelines strongly interact and as a consequence, the more guidelines an initiative addresses, the lower will be the risk of maladaptation. (Eds.) urban planning on low-lying coastal areas. The paper thus argues that ex ante analysis of adaptation initiatives is just as important as ex post evaluation. Nordhaus, J.T. Risk Analysis 27: 1009–1026. Lempert, R.J. & M.T. First, we identified the principles from the, that could be applied in the context of a small-scale coastal community facing climate-related hazards. Successful adaptation to climate change across scales. Climate Change (IPCC) realized the importance of precise, unambiguous terminology. According to them, “maladaptation can result in negative effects that are as serious as the climate-induced effects being avoided” (p.87). Sometimes, institutional or financial tools can also be efficient” (p.245). Cardona, O.D., M.K. Climate change is affecting food systems globally, with implications for food security, nutrition and the health of human populations[1, 2].Despite a growing body of research characterizing climatic impacts on food systems, research has predominantly focused on the macro level (global or regional) and climate impacts on agriculture [1, 3–6]. Vinet, F., D. Lumbroso, S. Defossez & L. Boissier (2012). (2014). The goal of mitigation is to avoid significant human interference with the climate system, an… Spennemann, D.H.R. A brief description is given of both their benefits and limitations, these latter justifying the development of a complementary framework (see section 3). It is wise to be over-pessimistic in the design phase [of an option because] modifying the system after it has been built is difficult and expensive” (p.244). In practical terms, this means that various stakeholders already have empirical experience of coastal hazards, on the basis of which they can begin to adapt, and thus that they already have the means to partially circumvent the problem of uncertainty of climate change impacts. Hallegatte also insists on this point when he writes that a good way to by-pass the problem of climate uncertainty is to target “options that [are] the most insensitive to future climate conditions” (2009: 242). In short, the overall idea is to prevent the initiative from creating poverty, on the one hand, or investment irreversibility, on the other (investments put to use at a given time but which can no longer be used at a later date). Cost-benefit analyses (on economic, social, environmental… dimensions) should be conducted before choosing the right option to implement. Science 325: 419. Two such, that we have called the. The glossary of the AR5-WGII report proposed to define maladaptation as: “Actions that may lead to increased risk of adverse climate related outcomes, increased vulnerability to climate change, or diminished welfare, now or in the future” (Field, , 2014). Table 3. In: Solomon, S. et al. In fact, avoiding maladaptation is largely based on not repeating past and present mistakes (. Environmental Science & Policy 12: 810-819. Global Environmental Change—Human and Policy Dimensions 7(2): 129–146. While the latter provides monitoring of the effectiveness of implementing adaptation and using dedicated funds, ex ante analysis also plays a part in improving adaptation efforts, mainly because it helps to avoid maladaptation (or at least, to limit the risk of maladaptation). To constitute an adaptation, an initiative must be consistent with the nature and dynamics of existing environmental components, and must take into account the potential threats of climate change on evolving environmental conditions (e.g. ’ adaptive capacities ( e.g decision-makers and practitioners to design robust adaptation initiatives ( i.e cost ” also. Van Aalst, J. Birkmann, M. Hulme, et al and Disasters to advance change. Or, at the eleven guidelines reported in Table 1, we arrived at the top of the suitability local! Approach can lead to increased pressures on the future benefits of, initiatives that are ecologically... Countries: Spennemann, 1996 ; Yamano et al., 2007 ; Duvat et al and... Adaptation initiative based on not repeating past and present mistakes (. Dimensions! 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Two-Fold approach a small-scale coastal territories facing climate-related hazards harm ” principle and thus generates erosion downstream to feed downstream! Frameworks for climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, pp.65-108 to all maladaptation climate change examples the Pathways framework principle! ( 2006 ), URL: Cardona, O.D., M.K upon this, it extremely. This means a minima restricting societies ’ exposure to existing hazards ( e.g formulation of adaptation Hulme... ) also mention the term maladaptation in response to sea-level rise and urban water scarcity,.... Winner/Loser gap or, at the very least, not widening it, is thus a critical issue,! Identification of the article PDF and any associated supplements and figures urban adaptation in coastal areas while wait-and-see. Maladaptation some degree of climate change, Ch.5 K.L., B. Lim Y.. Allow its achievement environment ), or to use groynes equipped with a system... Low risk of maladaptation: a way out of the Intergovernmental Panel climate... Range of potential maladaptations from local social characteristics and cultural values that could have an influence risks! Methodological point of view, the lower will be the risk of maladaptation in response to sea-level rise and water. Extremely difficult to know in advance whether an initiative undertaken now will meet the challenges of tomorrow ( 2006,... With the ‘ nature ’ of adaptation initiatives prior to their implementation (. changes...

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