phytoplasma diseases list

In Ghana, Yankey et al. [30][31] These results suggest that PHYL1, SAP54, and their homologs form a phyllody-inducing gene family, the members of which are termed phyllogens. However, more recent reports have shown that for R. regia (Narvaez et al. [52], Despite their small genomes, many predicted phytoplasma genes are present in multiple copies. 1998; Harrison and Oropeza 2008). Similar devastation occurred in Ghana, causing the near collapse of the once vibrant coconut industry in the Volta Region, one of the main coconut-producing areas of Ghana, as well as destroying thousands of hectares of palms in the Western and Central Regions of Ghana (Ofori and Nkansah-Poku 1997; Nkansah-Poku et al. Medhi A, Baranwal VK, Babu MK, Deepthi P (2012) Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and secA genes confirms the association of 16SrI-B subgroup phytoplasma with oil palm (. Subgroup16SrIV-F was found in Washingtonia robusta and Phoenix dactylifera palms in the USA (Ntushelo et al. 2012), and Florida (USA) (Ntushelo et al. [38], Phytoplasmas enter the insect body through the stylet, pass through the intestine, and then move to the hemolymph[38] and colonize the salivary glands: the entire process can take up to 3 weeks. 2002). Alhudaib K, Arocha Y, Wilson M, Jones P (2007) “Al-Wijam”, a new phytoplasma disease of date palm in Saudi Arabia. 2006). Success in the work of Contaldo and co-workers (Contaldo et al. N. curta collected in Grand-Lahou in Côte d’Ivoire appears to be morphologically identical to specimens from Ghana. Intercropping coconut with other crops have failed to lower the disease incidence, but provided an alternative source of income as insurance against CSPWD in Ghana (Andoh-Mensah and Ofosu-Budu 2012) and LD in Tanzania (Oleke et al. [6] These symptoms may be attributable to stress caused by the infection rather than a specific pathogenetic process. 2016). It is hoped that the recent breakthrough in the culture of phytoplasmas will help to speed up research on these enigmatic plant pathogens and their diseases. Similar diseases were reported in Togo (“kaincope” disease), Cameroon (“kribi” disease), and Ghana (“Cape St. Paul wilt” disease) by the early 1930s (Eden-Green 1997). 2011). status[56] (used for bacteria that cannot be cultured). Bila J, Högberg N, Mondjana A, Samils B (2015b). 2016), Belize, Cuba, Honduras, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis (Myrie et al. Dollet M, Quaicoe R, Pilet F (2009) Review of coconut “lethal yellowing” type diseases: diversity, variability and diagnosis. Phytoplasmas contain a major antigenic protein constituting most of the cell surface protein. There are five subgroups identified: 16SrIV-A, 16SrIV-B, 16SrIV-D, 16SrIV-E, and 16SrIV-F (Ntushelo et al. Conducting a transmission field trial for putative LYD insect vector is regarded as logistically difficult. 2000) and in Sabal mexicana, Pseudophoenix sargentii, and Thrinax radiata palms in Mexico (Vázquez-Euán et al. Based on the near full-length 16S rRNA gene, 16S–23S rRNA intergenic spacer region, and partial 23S rRNA gene sequences, Harrison et al. A nested PCR assay using R16 mF2/R16 mR1 and R16F2n/R16R2 primer pairs amplified products with approximate length of 1,250 bp from the symptomatic sugarcane samples. 2008). Hunt P, Dabek AJ, Schuiling M (1974) Remission of symptoms following tetracycline treatment of lethal yellowing infected coconut palms. [8] In 1992, the Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Mollicutes proposed the use of "Phytoplasma" rather than "mycoplasma-like organisms" "for reference to the phytopathogenic mollicutes". [17][18] In addition to regulation of plant development, TCPs also control the expression of lipoxygenase genes required for jasmonate biosynthesis. Phytoplasmas are most prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions. Phytoplasmas are cell-wall-less prokaryotes that until recently could not be cultivated in cell-free media (Lee et al. Dery SK, Philippe R (1997) Preliminary study on the epidemiology of Cape St Paul wilt disease of coconut in Ghana. (Derbidae) and Myndodus adiopodoumeensis (Synave) (Cixiidae), formerly placed in the genus Myndus (M. adiopodoumeensis) were found to carry the CSPWD phytoplasma, transmission trials were inconclusive (Philippe et al. TENGU homologs have been identified in AY-group phytoplasmas. 2004). The country hosts the International Coconut Genebank for Africa and the Indian Ocean, and the spread of the disease to new coconut-growing areas is of great concern. Phytoplasma diseases on potato appear to increase in importance worldwide. The symptoms of LYD are typically very similar and include fruit abortion, necrosis of inflorescences, progressive yellowing of the leaves, rotting of the stem apical tissues, and wilting and collapse of the palm crown leading to coconut mortality (Dollet et al. Several economically relevant phytoplasma-associated diseasesare described together with an update of phytoplasma taxonomy and major biological and molecular features of phytoplasmas. ISSN : 0972-0499 DOI : 10.5958/2249-880x.2017.00001.9 Nested PCR and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA and the secA genes confirmed the presence of the CILY phytoplasma in 216 out of 296 (73%) of the N. curta specimens, which suggested N. curta as a potential vector for the CILY phytoplasma (Kwadjo et al. (2014) confirmed that the LY phytoplasma strain from Mozambique shared 100% identity with that of the “awka wilt” phytoplasma strain or LDN from Nigeria (GenBank accession number Y14175). Myrie WA, Douglas L, Harrison NA, McLaughlin W, James M (2012) First report of lethal yellowing disease associated with subgroup 16SrIV, a phytoplasma on St. Kitts in the Lesser Antilles. 2000). 2017). Coconut Industry Board (2013) Final report of project sustainable coconut production through control of Coconut Lethal Yellowing (CFC/FIGOOF/22). This raises concerns about possible seed transmission of LY, a development which requires appropriate quarantine and seed movement policies to forestall intra and inter county spread of the disease. Lee I-M, Gundersen-Rindal DE, Davis RE, Bartoszyk IM (1998) Revised classification scheme of phytoplasmas based on RFLP analyses of 16SrRNA and ribosomal protein gene sequences. [14] TENGU contains a signal peptide at its N-terminus; after cleavage, the mature protein is only 38 amino acids in length. Oropeza et al. ,[36] (1983) classified palms according to their level of susceptibility, and the most susceptible palms include Cocos nucifera, Phoenix dactylifera, and different Pritchardia species. The family Cicadellidae was represented by a recently described genus and species of the tribe Erythroneurini, Nedotepa curta Dmitriev (Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Erythroneurini) (Dmitriev 2016). (1989). Viral and phytoplasmic infections share some symptoms. [12], Many plant pathogens produce virulence factors (i.e., effectors) that modulate or interfere with normal host processes to the benefit of the pathogens. 2006), some individuals can be affected by LY. 1996), and Guatemala (Mejía et al. Dollet M, Macome F, Vaz A, Fabre S (2011) Phytoplasmas identical to coconut lethal yellowing phytoplasmas from Zambesia (Mozambique) found in a pentatomide bug in Cabo Delgado province. Such subclades were informally proposed as three separate ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ species (IRPCM 2004), which were further supported by phylogenetic analysis of secA gene sequences (Hodgetts et al. Tahir Awan M.Sc. Eds Harrison NA, Rao GP, Marcone C. Studium Press. [38] Once established in an insect host, phytoplasmas are found in most major organs. Phytoplasma diseases and their relationships with insect and plant hosts in Canadian horticultural and field crops - Volume 141 Issue 5 - Chrystel Y. In many countries, the insect vectors of the disease are unknown and the search for the vectors must continue. Later, they were included in a new group, 16SrXXII (Wei et al. Nigeria appears to be the first country affected by LYD in West Africa in 1913 where it was called “awka wilt” disease (Johnson 1918). The presence of phytoplasmas in phloem tubes of infected plants was confirmed by DAPI staining. [30] MADS-box transcription factors (MTFs) of the ABCE model play critical roles in floral organ development in Arabidopsis. No symptoms of phytoplasma diseases were observed on these alternative plant hosts, suggesting that asymptomatic reservoirs are present for the CILY phytoplasmas. 2007), respectively. Plant Diseases caused by Phytoplasma and Spiroplasma By : Mohd. Infection triggers more axillary shoot production; the poinsettia plants thus produce more than a single flower. There are approximately 62,000 coconuts in Michael Black Farm, and within the period of 2002–2013, only 915 palms or 1.5% have been lost (Coconut Industry Board 2013). In Mozambique, Bila et al. P. cynodontis’ (16SrXIV) (Nejat et al. Subgroup16SrIV-B was found in coconuts in Mexico and in coconuts and Acrocomia aculeata palms in Honduras (Roca et al. Although no transmission studies have been carried out testing Cedusa insects, this occurrence supports the potential existence of other vectors of LY phytoplasmas. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Lethal Yellowing-like Diseases of Coconut. Lebrun P, Baudouin L, Myrie W, Berger A, Dollet M (2008) Recent lethal yellowing outbreak: why is the Malayan yellow dwarf coconut no longer resistant in Jamaica. Plant Pathology Department, University of Florida, IFAS Extension, 222 pp. In Côte d’Ivoire, surveys of coconut farms in Grand-Lahou revealed the presence of eight major Hemiptera families: Aphrophoridae, Achilidae, Derbidae, Flatidae, Membracidae, Pentatomidae, Tropiduchidae, and Cicadellidae. 2009; Arocha-Rosete et al. In addition, five species of plants (Emilia fosbergii, Synedrella nodiflora, Stachytarpheta jamaicensis, Macroptilium lathyroides, and Cleome rutidosperma) growing below the coconut palms in groves in Jamaica have been found positive with group 16SrIV phytoplasma, although they were symptomless (Brown et al. [17][21] Leafhoppers lay increased numbers of eggs on AY-WB-infected plants, at least in part because of SAP11 production. 2008). [29] Two SAP54 homologs, PHYL1 of the onion yellows phytoplasma and PHYL1PnWB of the peanut witches’ broom phytoplasma, also induce phyllody-like floral abnormalities. LY stage 2 involves only necrosis of the inflorescences (Harrison and Elliot 2005), while coconut palms at CILY stage 2 additionally exhibit yellowing of the older leaves, progressing to the younger leaves. 1981), Kenya, and Mozambique (Eden-Green 1997; Mpunami et al. Lee I-M, Davis RE, Gundersen-Rindal, DE (2000) Phytoplasmas: phytopathogenic mollicutes. This article is a list of diseases of peaches and nectarines (Peach: Prunus persica; Nectarine: P. persica var. [30] Phyllogens induce abnormal floral organ development by inhibiting the functions of these MTFs. 1999; Cordova et al. Phytoplasmas belong to the monotypic order Acholeplasmatales. The Mozambican and Nigerian LYD phytoplasma groups have been described as ‘Ca. Cryotherapy (i.e., the freezing of plant samples in liquid nitrogen) prior to tissue culture increases the probability of producing healthy plants in this manner. 2013). I. All such homologs undergo processing and can induce symptoms, suggesting that the symptom-inducing mechanism is conserved among TENGU homologs. Symptoms similar to those of LY in coconuts have been observed in more than 50 other palm species (McCoy et al. The host plants involved in such diseases include the oil palm, date palm, and arecanut palm (Table, Al-Awadhi H, Hanif A, Suleman P, Montasser M (2002) Molecular and microscopical detection of phytoplasma associated with yellowing disease of date palm. Equatorial Guinea is also reported to be affected by the disease (Dollet et al. In: Characterization, Diagnosis and Management of Phytoplasmas. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham. [40] In addition, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (a sensitive, simple, and rapid diagnostic method) is now available as a commercial kit allowing all known phytoplasma species to be detected in about 1 h, including the DNA extraction step. 2014). Tanne E, Boudon-Padieu E, Clair D, Davidovich M, Melamed S, Klein M (2001) Detection of phytoplasma by polymerase chain reaction of insect feeding medium and its use in determining vectoring ability. 2016), S. palmetto (Harrison et al. 2001) maybe an alternative option. 2000; Eziashi and Omar 2010). 2013; Gurr et al. 2008; Perera et al. Harrison NA, Oropeza C (1997) Recent studies on detection of lethal yellowing disease phytoplasmas in the Americas. 2000; Bertaccini and Duduk 2009; Gasparich 2010). In both cases LY-type syndromes were observed. Ashburner GR, Cordova I, Oropeza C, Illingworth R, Harrison NA (1996) First report of coconut lethal yellowing in Honduras. Specimens from the families Cicadellidae and Derbidae were the most abundantly collected. Premature dropping of nuts (a); toppling of crown (c); blackening of inflorescence (b); progressive yellowing of fronds (d–e); bare trunks or telephone poles (g–h); a severely devastated farm (i) (Courtesy of J. Nkansah-Poku). In Nigeria, LYD has nearly wiped out the palm plantations in south-east and south-south and is now spreading toward the south-west (Eziashi and Omar 2010). Later studies using PCR have shown that phytoplasmas in H. crudus belong to the 16SrIV group (Harrison and Oropeza 1997). [51] The larger phytoplasma genomes are around 1350 kb in size. Before the molecular era, the diagnosis of phytoplasma-caused diseases was difficult because the organisms could not be cultured. In 2013, a yellow decline was observed also on royal palms (Roystonea regia) (Naderali et al. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 43–57 pp. CFC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Until the end of the 1990s, phytoplasmas associated with the “maladie de Kaincopé” in Togo, “awka wilt” in Nigeria, and CSPWD in Ghana were listed in the 16SrIV group (Lee et al. Symptoms appear very similar, but it cannot be said whether these diseases are caused by … Howard FW (1995) Lethal yellowing vector studies. Ed Eden-Green SJ, Ofori F, Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, United Kingdom, 9–25 pp. There is no one symptom which predicts the presence of LYD but rather the symptoms can be considered as a syndrome involving a series of symptoms. Gurr GM, Johnson AC, Ash GJ, Wilson BAL, Ero MM, Pilotti CA, Dewhurst CF, You MS (2016) Coconut lethal yellowing diseases: a phytoplasma threat to palms of global economic and social significance. Phytoplasmas can also be spread via dodders (Cuscuta)[39] or by vegetative propagation such as the grafting of infected plant tissue onto a healthy plant. (2013) developed a marker based on coconut receptor-like kinase genes and a high-throughput genotyping system based on high-resolution melt curve analysis to validate the genetic purity of breeding material resistant to CSPWD in Ghana, as well as to identify infected breeding material before it is provided to growers, and to prevent resistance breakdown. Bertaccini A, Duduk B (2009) Phytoplasma and phytoplasma disease: a review of recent research. Unlike lethal yellowing-like diseases, necrosis in unopened inflorescences and premature nut drop have not been observed for WCLWD. These bacteria have been previously isolated from trunks of date palms (Phoenix canariensis, Chabaud) affected by the lethal decline phytoplasma using a universal phytoplasma primer pair (P1/P7) in Texas (Harrison et al. Similar symptoms of CYD have been observed on other palms such as foxtail palm (Wodyetia bifurcata) in 2012 (Naderali et al. In Jamaica it is believed that there is a LY variation that might involve a phytoplasma different to that found before that is affecting palms that were previously considered resistant to LY. Based on our years of experience and the latest science, APHIS developed a list of 59 pests and diseases that could pose a significant risk to U.S. food and agriculture resources. Phytoplasma Mali. Recently, cassava (Manihot esculenta) has also been described as an alternative host plant of the CILY phytoplasma (Kra et al. Samayawardana Printers, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 336–341 pp. Based on molecular screening, Pentatomidae specimens of Platacantha lutea were revealed as a potential insect vectoring LYD phytoplasma in northern Mozambique (Dollet et al. The phytoplasma recently described as BCS (Bogia coconut syndrome), phylogenetically related to the palm phytoplasma, is homologous with an emerging phytoplasma of another monocot: the banana wilt associated phytoplasma (BWAP), observed on cooking banana plants (Davis et al. Access from the University of Nottingham repository: Yankey EN, Pilet F, Quaicoe RN, Dery SK, Dollet M, Dzogbefia VP (2009) Search for alternate hosts of the coconut Cape Saint Paul wilt disease pathogen. PCR amplicons using CSPWD-specific primers were produced from Desmodium adscendens; however, sequence analysis confirmed the presence of Bacillus megaterium and Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Kelly PL, Reeder R, Kokoa P, Arocha Y, Nixon T, Fox A (2011) First report of a phytoplasma identified in coconut palms (. However, as phytoplasmas spread more slowly than solutes, and for other reasons, passive translocation within plants is thought to be unimportant[40]. Edwin BT, Mohankumar C (2007a) Kerala wilt disease phytoplasma: phylogenetic analysis and identification of a vector, Edwin BT, Mohankumar C (2007b) Molecular identification of, Eziashi E, Omar I (2010) Lethal yellowing disease of the coconut palms (, FAO (2017) AGP-Integrated Pest Management (. McCoy RE, Howard FW, Tsai JH, Donselman HM, Thomas DL, Basham RA, Atilano RA, Eskafi FM, Britt L, Collins ME (1983) Lethal yellowing of palms. evidence of benefit for the pathogen) were identified. In Mozambique, field testing of the transmission ability of D. mkurangai to confirm its LYD phytoplasma vector status would have to be done. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Phytoplasmas: Plant Pathogenic Bacteria - I The Cote d’Ivoire lethal yellowing (CILY) phytoplasma disease has destroyed hundreds of hectares of palms in a recent outbreak, with over 7000 more hectares at risk in the Grand-Lahou region of Cote d’Ivoire (Arocha-Rosete et al. The presence of phytoplasmas and their associated diseases is an emerging threat to vegetable production which leads to severe yield losses worldwide. However, LY has not yet moved south of Honduras into Nicaragua or any other country within Central America. ", "Phytoplasma SAP11 alters 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine biosynthesis in Nicotiana benthamiana by suppressing NbOMT1", "Phytoplasma effector SWP1 induces witches' broom symptom by destabilizing the TCP transcription factor BRANCHED1", "Alterations of plant architecture and phase transition by the phytoplasma virulence factor SAP11", "Independently evolved virulence effectors converge onto hubs in a plant immune system network", "Pseudomonas syringae Type III Effector HopBB1 Promotes Host Transcriptional Repressor Degradation to Regulate Phytohormone Responses and Virulence", "Phytoplasma effector SAP54 induces indeterminate leaf-like flower development in Arabidopsis plants", "Recognition of floral homeotic MADS-domain transcription factors by a phytoplasmal effector, phyllogen, induces phyllody", "Phytoplasma Effector SAP54 Hijacks Plant Reproduction by Degrading MADS-box Proteins and Promotes Insect Colonization in a RAD23-Dependent Manner", "Degradation of class E MADS-domain transcription factors in Arabidopsis by a phytoplasmal effector, phyllogen", "A Bacterial Parasite Effector Mediates Insect Vector Attraction in Host Plants Independently of Developmental Changes", "Interactions between a membrane protein of a pathogen and insect microfilament complex determines insect vector specificity". 2016) has, however, begun to overcome this hurdle. 2003) and Ghana (Nipah et al. Gasparich GE (2010) Spiroplasmas and phytoplasmas: Microbes associated with plant hosts. 1998). [7] A typical phytoplasma is pleiomorphic or filamentous in shape and is less than 1 μm in diameter. Phytoplasma are prokaryotes belonging to the class Mollicutes because they lack a cell wall, Subgroup 16SrIV-E has only been found in coconut palms in the Dominican Republic (Martinez et al. One characteristic symptom is abnormal floral organ development including phyllody, (i.e., the production of leaf-like structures in place of flowers) and virescence (i.e., the development of green flowers attributable to a loss of pigment by petal cells). (Mpunami et al. Harrison NA, Womack M, Carpio ML (2002) Detection and characterization of a lethal yellowing (165rIV) group phytoplasma in Canary Island date palms affected by lethal decline in Texas. Three of the species identified as alternate hosts in Côte d’Ivoire (S. indica, P. pedicellatum, and M. esculenta) had been assessed in Ghana using direct PCR, but they were not found to harbor the phytoplasma even though the phytoplasmas implicated in both diseases are in the same subgroup (16SrXXII-B). They are transmitted from plant to plant by vectors (normally sap-sucking insects such as leafhoppers) in which they both survive and replicate. [13] Transgenic expression of TENGU in Arabidopsis plants induced sterility in male and female flowers. Such technologies need to be encouraged in the breeding programs of the various countries. Finding germplasm that is resistant to LYD in Mozambique has so far been a challenge. Coconut yellowing disease. Indirect potential insect vector screening through membrane-feeding assay followed by PCR testing for phytoplasma detection on the media (Tanne et al. [8], Tissue culture can be used to produce healthy clones of phytoplasma-infected plants. Nkansah-Poku J, Philippe R, Quaicoe RN (2009) Cape Saint Paul wilt disease of coconut in Ghana: surveillance and management of disease spread. Munguambe N, Timbrine R, Freire M, Gadaga S, Dias P, Do Rosario B, Pudivitr J, Pilet F (2013) Large scale management of coconut lethal yellowing disease in Mozambique. Unlike other Mollicutes, the triplet code of UGA is used as a stop codon in phytoplasmas. 2009), as well as cage transmission trials with more than 70,000 Myndus adiopodoumeensis for 28 months (520 adults/seedling/month). On the other hand, it has spread through the Caribbean more rapidly, and it is currently present as far as Antigua (Ntushelo et al. Wejisekara HRT, Perera L, Wickramananda IR, Herath I, Meegahakumbura MK, Fernando WBS, de Silva PHPR (2008) Preliminary investigation on “weligama” coconut leaf wilt disease: a new disease in Southern Sri Lanka. The disease has wreaked great havoc in Jamaica, Ghana, Tanzania, Togo, Nigeria, Mozambique, Mexico, and very recently Cote d’Ivoire (Eden-Green 1997; Dollet et al. International Organization for Mycoplasmology, "Axenic culture of plant pathogenic phytoplasmas", "Phytoplasmas: bacteria that manipulate plants and insects", "Isolation of the gene encoding an immunodominant membrane protein of the apple proliferation phytoplasma, and expression and characterization of the gene product", "Phytoplasma: Phytopathogenic Mollicutes", "Phytoplasma induced free-branching in commercial poinsettia cultivars", "A unique virulence factor for proliferation and dwarfism in plants identified from a phytopathogenic bacterium", "The phytoplasmal virulence factor TENGU causes plant sterility by downregulating of the jasmonic acid and auxin pathways", "The alteration of plant morphology by small peptides released from the proteolytic processing of the bacterial peptide TENGU", "Phytoplasma protein effector SAP11 enhances insect vector reproduction by manipulating plant development and defense hormone biosynthesis", "The small phytoplasma virulence effector SAP11 contains distinct domains required for nuclear targeting and CIN-TCP binding and destabilization", "Arabidopsis class I and class II TCP transcription factors regulate jasmonic acid metabolism and leaf development antagonistically", "Empoasca leafhoppers attack wild tobacco plants in a jasmonate-dependent manner and identify jasmonate mutants in natural populations", "An effector of apple proliferation phytoplasma targets TCP transcription factors-a generalized virulence strategy of phytoplasma?

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